IVF Progesterone supplementation
Progesterone is made from the ovaries after ovulation. During IVF cycles, progesterone is produced after the hCG trigger injection is taken. Using medications to prevent premature ovulation and performing an egg retrieval may cause the progesterone production to be inadequate. For this reason, we will supplement progesterone in women being treated with IVF.
Vaginal or IM Progesterone?
The most reliable way to get progesterone to the uterus is to administer it vaginally. Several studies have been performed comparing vaginal progesterone to intra-muscular injections. In the past, some studies have shown that vaginal progesterone is best whereas some studies showed that intra-muscular progesterone is best. Today, it is almost universally agreed that there is no difference in the chance for pregnancy between the two.
Most women prefer to use vaginal progesterone. This is due to the fact that administration of intramuscular progesterone is painful and can result in welts at the injection site. some women also have allergic reaction to the oil base in the progesterone injections.
A few women seem to prefer progesterone injections because they do not like the vaginal discharge that can sometimes occur with the use of vaginal progesterone.
We like to use vaginal progesterone in the evening (either a natural progesterone cream called Crinone
or a vaginal progesterone dissolving tablet called Endometrin
). Crinone comes in an applicator like medications that are used to treat yeast infections. One applicator of Crinone is given each morning and night starting on the night of the egg retrieval. Endometrin is used three times daily.
Safety of progesterone in IVF
Many couples worry whether treatment with progesterone is safe for the baby. The short answer is yes.
Progesterone supplements come in different varieties. Only a few of these types are safe to use in pregnancy. Progesterone that is chemically identical to the “natural” progesterone made in the ovaries is safe to use in pregnancy. In fact, two brands, Crinone
, are natural progesterones that are approved by the U.S. FDA for use in fertility treatments. Some pharmacies can also make natural progesterone vaginal suppositories. Progesterone intramuscular injections
also contain natural progesterone and may be used during pregnancy.
There are progesterone supplements that are synthetically derived and not chemically identical to the progesterone made in the ovaries. For example, the progesterones that are contained in birth control pills like norethindrone, drospirenone (and others) should not be used in pregnancy. A very commonly used type of synthetic progesterone called Provera should also not be used in pregnant women.
How long do you need to continue progesterone?
As noted above, there is concern about the ovaries ability to produce progesterone because of the use of medications and because of the egg retrieval. At about the 7th week of pregnancy, progesterone production begins to shift from the ovaries to the placenta. By about the 11th week, the shift is complete and all progesterone is being produced by the placenta. At this posint, progesterone supplementation is no longer needed.